Mustard is a cool season crop that performs well in a short growing season with crops reaching maturity in 90 to 100 days. Seeds can germinate in soil temperatures as low as 4.4˚C. Seedlings are fairly frost tolerant allowing for early seeding. Mustard seedlings are more tolerant to late spring frosts than canola and flax seedlings.
Mustard is more drought tolerant than other oilseed crops and is well suited to the Brown and Dark Brown soil zones in the southern Prairies. However, mustard will not tolerate extended periods of drought and should not be grown in dry sand and dry sandy loam soils or in areas where flooding may occur. When soils become waterlogged there will be poor aeration in the root zone resulting in stunting of mustard plants.